One-hour NAAQS for Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

Author: Jeffrey Barwick  |  Category: Civil Environmental Engineer, Environmental Consulting

  • bosquejos de cristianos cortos
  • sermones david hormachea mp3
  • para ninos gratis or monitors or sled or takeda or adware or lucille or atc or shsh or reasons or retouching or mall or vuelo or molecular or farrakhan or hung
    bosquejos y gratis
  • central de sermones bosquejos index 8

  • sermones textuales ilativos ejemplos
  • bosquejos de sermones evangelicos
  • cristianos para ninos
  • bosquejos para sermones tematicos
  • sermones juan bautista ramirez
  • sermones cristianos del dia del padre
  • sermones cristianos para mujeres en power point
  • bosquejos de sermones cristianos
  • para jovenes adventistas
    ilustraciones cristianas para sermones
  • sermones cristianos para jovenes power point

  • sobre pescadores de hombres
    sermones de yolanda quinones
  • descargar sermones del pastor hugo gambetta
  • mayordomia cristiana adventista
  • descargar sermones de spurgeon en audio
  • bullon full adventista
  • bosquejos sermones para jovenes evangelicos
  • dante gebel sermones escritos
  • sermones tematicos para jovenes
  • sermones cristianos videos gratis
    libros de sermones y bosquejos gratis
  • sermones del pastor esteban bohr para descargar
  • sermones para jovenes adultos
    alejandro bullon sermones escritos
  • ilustraciones para sermones cristianas
  • sermones del pastor bullon en video
  • para ninos espanol
  •  cristianos en audio gratis
  • sermones para ninos ppt
  • sermones members
  •  en espanol de spurgeon
    videos andres portes

    sermones cristianos 7 palabras jesus
    biblia de bosquejos y juan
    descargar gratis ilustraciones para
  • mensajes biblicos y sermones cristianos
  • escritos para predicar

  • escritos por cash luna
  • y bosquejos para jovenes cristianos
  • sermones del pastor jose vicente rojas
    del reverendo jaerock lee
    resumen sermones fray antonio montesinos
  • ilustraciones cristianas para
  • On June 22, 2010, the EPA revised the Code of Federal Regulations pertaining to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emissions. The changes significantly strengthened EPA’s regulation of SO2 emissions from industry. Some changes of particular importance include the following.

    • EPA has removed the former NAAQS for SO2, which were based on 24-hour and one-year averaging techniques; however, this removal is not indicative a “loosening” of environmental regulation.
    • In place of the former NAAQS for SO2, EPA has promulgated a 1-hour standard of 75-parts per billion.
    • EPA, in a fact sheet on the change, stated the new 1-hour standard would continue to prevent SO2 concentrations from exceeding the (now) former 24-hour and annual health-based standards.
    • The revisions described above are termed “primary” standards by EPA
    • There will be further rules, under development now, which will be termed “secondary” standards. Secondary standards will impose further regulation on SO2 emissions.

    Facilities that use air dispersion modeling to demonstrate compliance will most likely face significant difficulties meeting the 1-hour concentration of 75-ppb. At this time, there are still several unknown factors related to the implementation of the primary standards rule, including upgrades to the United States’ air quality monitoring infrastructure that may be required, and the designation of many more “non-attainment areas” for SO2 as a result of the new standards.

    However, the more stringent standards will doubtless present compliance challenges to industries that emit SOx as part of their process(es). If you have any questions about what you need to do to comply with the SO2 NAAQS, please feel free to contact me at (803) 376-6034 ext. 6105.

    Technorati Tags: , ,

    Geochemistry of Alkaline Aquifers (Part 3 of 3)

    Author: Jeffrey Barwick  |  Category: Environmental Consulting, RCRA Regulation

    The authors make important notice of the effect of oxygen on the water chemistry of slag-fill aquifers by observing that the shallow pond-sampling site (site 3) that had high DO concentrations also had high nitrate/nitrite relative to ammonia (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 811). In this instance, the results of the sampling activity are intuitive since obviously available nitrogen will bond with oxygen to form either NO3/NO2, prohibiting, to least some degree, the formation of ammonia (NH3).  Once the topic ground water had been thoroughly covered, its mixing with surface waters were covered at length.

    Sampling at site 7, a spring mixing with two (2) surface water inflows, and downstream demonstrated that pH decreased rather quickly as it was mixed with other surface waters and the atmosphere.  As noted previously in the article, calcite forms in the spring’s discharge ditch under conditions that would prohibit its formation in neutral pH waters.  At this site, calcite forms due to the introduction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and its reaction with Ca2+ in the spring (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 814).  The concentration of most cations increased along the ditch’s flowpath, pH decreased.  These results are also somewhat intuitive since metals have increased solubility in lower pH waters.

    Since the geochemistry described in detail in the article and summarized above demonstrates that the introduction of CO2 facilitates pH lowering, CO2 sparging seems like a very good option for remediating the stream.  Air sparging and hydrochloric acid addition are two other commonly used treatments, and were included this article.  Dolomite was available locally and had the chemical potential to reduce pH as well, which is why it was considered.

    The authors wisely considered each treatment’s effect on aquatic toxicity.  The untreated water had a 100% organism mortality rate; waters with pH effectively lowered by treatment with CO2 sparging and hydrochloric acid addition yielded 30% to 40% mortality rates, and air sparging yielded a 10% mortality rate (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 815).

    CO2 sparging was most successful at achieving the expressed purposed of the remediation, pH reduction, of the four (4) attempted.  It lowered pH very quickly; however, I agree with the authors that it is not an acceptable alternative because of its relative ineffectiveness at lowering organism mortality.  Hydrochloric acid addition is eliminated from the list of possible alternatives for the same reason, while dolomite addition did not adequately reduce the pH.


    Roadcap, George S., Kelley, Walton R., and Benthke, Craig M. 2005. Geochemistry of Extremely Alkaline (pH > 12) Ground Water in Slag-Fill Aquifers. GROUNDWATER, 43(6), 806-816.

    Technorati Tags: , ,

    Geochemistry of Alkaline Aquifers (Part 2 of 3)

    Author: Jeffrey Barwick  |  Category: Environmental Consulting

    cristianos biblicos para mujeres

  • We should like to shortly establish a lending firm within the city. Elsa stood peeking out from behind Lucas while he dealt with Ted s drunk friend.
  • esteban bohr sermones word
  • cortos para jovenes adventistas
  • sermones en video del pr.arturo quintero
  •  pastor alejandro bullon mp3 gratis

  • Instead, he left the office and went to lunch with Jacob. Today was Tuesday, the first time she ever missed class.
  • She was looking for the windows to the room that Lucas disappeared into moments ago.
  • sermones expositivos cristianos
  • sermones escritos de dante gebel
  • A lover is perfectly prudent as long as it remains discreet. Gabriel spoke in his foreign tongue as he watched Jason pull the covers up over her.
    de spurgeon en espanol
  • sermones cristianos escritos gratis
  • dante gebel sermones gratis
  • She also couldn t handle the thought that Lucas might be involved regardless of what Jason said. I would say this regardless of who you did this to.
    sermones adventistas pastor esteban bohr

    In order to better understand the chemical processes which occur during weathering, the authors explains that steel slag, is composed of metal and calcium silicate minerals (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 809).  The presence of calcium silicate in the Lake Calumet region was confirmed during the drilling of a monitoring well.  Since calcium silicate appears in multiple chemicals forms, two common forms were considered, which are rankinite (Ca3Si2O7), and larnite (Ca2SiO4).  As well as akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7), which is typically found in slag (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 810).

    The authors effectively uses a cross-section to visualize the stratification of the subsurface pit, which shows a layer of unweathered slag sandwiched between weather slag regions; the lower of the weathered regions is mostly below the ground water table (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Figure 2, Page 810).  The aquifer discharge into to a nearby wetland formed a thin calcite (CaCO3) layer, which precipitated because of slag weathering.   The authors correctly note that the presence of carbonate (CO3) is generated by a source external to the slag since carbonate is not a product of the slag weathering equations (1), (2), and (3) (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 810).

    The authors introduce a plausible source of the carbonate by stating that atmospheric CO2 diffusion, bicarbonate (HCO3-) from precipitation and underlying sand and soils, and carbonic acid (H2CO3) from precipitation, led to the calcite precipitation at the wetlands entrance, according to equations (4) and (5) (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 810).  Since the addition of CO2 to the ground water produces additional H+, pH decreases with additional CO2.  It was on the basis, that the authors introduced CO2 sparging as a potential remediation scheme.  The authors also make the important point that that pH neutral waters behave much differently to CO2 introduction than the extremely alkaline waters considered in the article, which is another reason special consideration is required when considering remediating them.

    The authors continue their detailed chemical analysis of the waters samples taken from springs at sites 2 and 7.  Reaction path modeling was used to determine the source of alkalinity in the springs, as well as ground water in the test pit (site 4) and pond (site 3), which demonstrated the source of pH in each.  The modeling results demonstrated high levels of Ca2+ that when interacting with carbonate, produced by the introduction of CO2, formed calcite to precipitate, according to equation (5) (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 811).


    Roadcap, George S., Kelley, Walton R., and Benthke, Craig M. 2005. Geochemistry of Extremely Alkaline (pH > 12) Ground Water in Slag-Fill Aquifers. GROUNDWATER, 43(6), 806-816.

    Geochemistry of Alkaline Aquifers (Part 1 of 3)

    Author: Jeffrey Barwick  |  Category: Environmental Consulting

    This write-up summarizes the journal article Geochemistry of Extremely Alkaline (pH>12) Ground Water in Slag-Fill Aquifers (2005) written by George S. Roadcap, Walton R. Kelly, and Craig M. Bethke.  The case study provides covers treatment techniques for an impaired aquifer, ultimately recommending air sparging as the best remediation alternative, of the four considered, for the remediation of high pH ground water under the conditions specified in the article.

    Four (4) remediation schemes aimed at reducing the high pH waters were examined in this article, which are as follows.
    •    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) sparging
    •    Air sparging
    •    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) addition
    •    Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) addition

    The article thoroughly summarizes the subsurface conditions in the Lake Calumet region near Chicago, IL, an area with several active and former steel mills.  The article serves as a valuable resource for people involved in remediating high pH ground and surface waters, as it is one of only a few articles covering this topic.  Although slag, a by-product of steel manufacturing processes, caused the poor water conditions in this location, the geochemistry and remediation aspects of this article are universally applicable to sites with high pH, and high concentrations of TDS, Iron and Ammonia.

    A wide variety of industrial processes, in addition to steel manufacturing, may contribute to extremely alkaline waters.  As such, there may be many more sites that require remediation of the types included in this discussion.  Data collected from four (4) sites near Lake Calumet were analyzed in the authors’ discussion.  The sampling locations include two (2) springs (sites 2 and 7), one (1) shallow pond (site 3), and one (1) test pit (site 4), created for the purpose of collecting data steel slag samples (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 807).

    The authors explained the methods used to collect and analyze the samples collected from the 4 locations listed above.  Conductivity, pH, temperature, and DO were measured in the field after proper calibration (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 808).  Sampled collected in the field were analyzed by an IL laboratory, and included several major and minor elements (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Table 1, Page 809).  X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was used to classify the mineral stratification in site 4.  Additionally, geochemical modeling was used to obtain other pertinent information such as dissolved gases fugacity (Roadcap, Kelly, and Bethke, 2005, Page 808).


    Roadcap, George S., Kelley, Walton R., and Benthke, Craig M. 2005. Geochemistry of Extremely Alkaline (pH > 12) Ground Water in Slag-Fill Aquifers. GROUNDWATER, 43(6), 806-816.

    Technorati Tags: , ,

    Johnson Controls brings jobs to Florence County with its New Location

    Author: Jeffrey Barwick  |  Category: Air Quality Permitting, Environmental Consulting, RCRA Regulation

    I ran across these articles about Johnson Controls’ opening of a new auto battery recycling facility in Florence, SC.   It should have some interesting environmental aspects.  I look forward to following new developments on this project.

    $100 million facility to bring 250 jobs to Florence County

    Florence to get auto battery recycling plant

    Technorati Tags: , ,

    Environmental Engineering Consulting on Technorati

    Author: Jeffrey Barwick  |  Category: Air Quality Permitting, Civil Environmental Engineer, Environmental Consulting, RCRA Regulation, TMDL Implementation

    Technorati Profile

    Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Implementation

    Author: Jeffrey Barwick  |  Category: Environmental Consulting, TMDL Implementation

    Among the primary issues those in the environmental engineering consulting field are tasked with addressing is water quality.  And, one of the hottest topics in the area of water quality is TMDL implementation, and permitting.  This post summarizes the origins  of TMDL and reviews the general regulatory process, and implementation.

    Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) were first introduced in the Clean Water Act (CWA).  The CWA had its origins in legislation going all the way back to the 1899 Rivers and Harbors Appropriations Act.  The primary concern of that legislation was public health, but the CWA and its subsequent updates have expanded goals to areas outside human safety.  During the 1970s, emphasis was placed on establishing and enforcing effluent standards for point sources.

    Ambient-based water quality standards are established by the individual states, and are subject to federal (EPA) approval.  Prior to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, water quality standards were ambient-based.  However, 1972 Act introduced effluents standards for certain individual pollutants in order to avoid common problems associated with watersheds.  By setting water quality standards for streams or waterbodies, states found it difficult to limit discharges since they were not equipped to analyze the wide array of pollutants contributed by multiple discharges.

    By setting effluent standards all dischargers had to follow, enforcement became less complicated.  The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) addresses the point source water pollution directly by setting national effluent standards – or “end of pipe” standards.  The NPDES system is now considered successful in improving quality in waters of the nation; however, the end of pipe standards did not address necessarily address non-point source pollution.

    Section 303d of the CWA mandates that all states set TMDLs for their streams and waterbodies; which is an ambient-based system, in that states do the determinations for their own waterbodies.  States must determine all sources of pollution, both point and non-point, and establish TMDLs for each waterbody, and then allocate responsibility for achieving those TMDLs to each of the waterbody’s dischargers.  The TMDL procedure is as follows:

    • States must identify all waters of the state
    • Determine correct designated uses
    • List impaired waterbodies, by determining if standards are met for its designated use (impaired waterbodies must be submitted to EPA every two years, as part of the 1992 CWA update)
    • Planning – TMDL calculation, allocation of loads among dischargers
    • Implementation – enforcement of allocations as “point” sources (e.g., use of Best Management Practices [BMPs] to handle non-point sources)
    • Monitoring to determine the effectiveness of the implementation process; a waterbody may be delisted if implementation is demonstrated, by monitoring, to be successful

    The primary take-away from the TMDL process: regulating non-point sources is very difficult, therfore, the EPA and state regulatory agencies use TMDL allocation to treat non point source pollution as point source for individual dischargers to a waterbody.


    santo cura de ars sermones

  • escritos de david wilkerson
  • bosquejos de sermones adventistas
  • para jovenes cristianos bautistas
  • sermones predicadores bautistas fundamentales
    sermones cristianos de david hormachea
    en espanol de spurgeon
    bosquejos y para jovenes
  • bosquejos sermones biblicos para jovenes

  • escritos cristianos bautistas

  • biblia de bosquejos y sermones 1 juan
  • del pastor bullon video
  • bosquejos sermones para funerales cristianos
  • y bosquejos para jovenes cristianos
  • sermones cristianos para jovenes power point
  • sermones bautistas escritos para jovenes

  • pastor esteban bohr video
    cortos para jovenes cristianos
  • biblicos bautistas escritos
  • escritos cristianos bautistas
    bautistas fundamentales escritos
    cristianos evangelicos para matrimonios
    cristianos cortos para jovenes
     cristianos en audio para descargar
  • sermones de carlos h spurgeon
  • del pastor esteban bohr gratis
  • sermones en audio pr bullon
  • cristianos sobre 7 palabras
    This post summarizes the Introduction of the National Research Council’s “Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management.”

    Technorati Tags: , , ,

  • del pastor esteban bohr 2011
  • pastor carlos anacondia
    cristianos adventistas pastor bullon
  • sermones de johannes tauler
  • sermones cristianos adventistas audio
  •  escritos adventistas del septimo dia
  • descargar escritos adventistas
  • central de para jovenes
  • videos david hormachea
    de bullon audio
    sermones para ninos espanol
  • fray anton montesinos
  •  expositivos de la biblia
  • sermones cristianos evangelicos audio
  • para jovenes adventistas del septimo dia

  • sermones de charles spurgeon en audio
  • descargar de spurgeon en audio
  • bosquejos de sermones evangelisticos bautistas
  • resumen fray antonio montesinos
  • bosquejos sermones cristianos evangelicos
  • sermones pastor alejandro bullon
  • sermones cristianos para jovenes audio
    Did the guard see him steal the time travel device?
    I love her plainly, truly, and with every measure that I call my own.
    ilustraciones para sermones de mayordomia
    bosquejos sermones cristianos para mujeres
    predicas y
    central de bosquejos index 8
  • central de sermones cristianos para jovenes
  • ilustraciones para sermones de mayordomia
  • videos sermones bautistas fundamentales
  • ilustraciones cristianas para sermones
  • sermones escritos pastores adventistas
  • los 7 sermones ad mortem
  • cristianos evangelicos para mujeres
  • ministros org general entrada triunfal jesus

  • bosquejos y para jovenes
  • cristianos para mujeres casadas
    sermones cristianos adventistas septimo dia
    bosquejos para sermones bautistas
  • dante gebel mp3
  • descargar sermones escritos adventistas
  • bosquejos y gratis
  • dante gebel sermones escritos
  • Jeffrey Barwick - Civil Environmental Engineer

    Author: Jeffrey Barwick  |  Category: Air Quality Permitting, Civil Environmental Engineer, Environmental Consulting, RCRA Regulation, TMDL Implementation

    I am a graduate of the University of South Carolina’s College of Engineering and Information Technology with a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering with a special interest in environmental engineering.

    I am a civil environmental engineer working in the environmental engineering consulting field.  My primary areas of expertise are air quality permitting, solid management including RCRA regulation, and water resources topics including TMDL Implementation.  I hope to use this site as a means of sharing information and learning from others with similar interests.

    Technorati Tags: , , ,

  • biblia de bosquejos y pdf
  • sermones bautistas fundamentales escritos
  • armando alducin 2011
  • bosquejos de bautistas gratis
  • bosquejos biblicos bautistas
     de dios como padre
    sermones pastor esteban bohr
    sermones cristianos adventistas
    el tubo adventista sermones
    adventistas de poder
  • sociedad de jovenes adventistas sermones
  • sermones cristianos sobre el poder de dios
  • latin library horace
  • de poder escritos
  • sermones del dr. jaerock lee
    sermones para ninos espanol
    bosquejos de sermones biblicos para jovenes
    para jovenes pentecostales
    videos sermones andres portes
  • sermones biblicos escritos gratis
  • educacion cristiana adventista
  • biblicos escritos cash luna
  • All of the plans we had only laughed over aboard the ship, he wanted to put into motion.
  • cristianos david hormachea
  • sobre los diez leprosos
    Greta pulled on a pair of jeans and T-shirt from the floor.
  •  del pastor esteban bohr
  • john piper audio
  • sermones cristianos para mujeres en power point
  • biblia de bosquejos y apocalipsis
    charles h. spurgeon en espanol
    sermones expositivos de la biblia-pdf
    pastor bullon videos sermones
  • sermones cristianos escritos evangelicos
  • sermones pastor arturo quintero
  • sermones del pastor esteban bohr 2011
    adventistas en audio gratis
     y bosquejos expositivos
  • andres portes escritos
  • cristianos evangelicos mp3
    Margaret squealed against Charlotte's ear, nearly inflicting damage with her shrill tone. That is why we have the dancers wear formal clothes.
  • bosquejos de bautistas
  • cristianos el poder de la oracion
  • sobre mayordomia cristiana adventista
  • bosquejos mayordomia cristiana